Various dating methods

Catches that are not associated with tuna and other large pelagic fishes, but taken by fishing countries outside their domestic waters are derived as described for ‘Layer 2’ in Part 4.

based on the fundamental principles outlined in UNCLOS (i.e., 200 nautical miles or mid-line rules), and the FAO statistical areas by which global catch statistics are reported.

The Law of the Sea also makes allowances, through the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, for countries to claim extended jurisdiction over shelf areas beyond 200 nm, if they can demonstrate that their continental shelf extends beyond the established 200 nm EEZ.

National claims for EEZs and extended jurisdiction may overlap, creating areas of disputed ownership and jurisdiction.

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The point here is that, because they are very broad, the FAO statistical areas often distinguish between strongly different ecosystems, for example the Caribbean Sea from the coast of the Eastern Central Pacific in the case of Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala.Whenever available, we also use data reported nationally for a first-order comparison with FAO data, which often assist in identifying catches likely taken in areas beyond national jurisdiction, i.e., either in EEZs of other countries or in high seas waters.The reason for this is that many national datasets do not necessarily include catches by national distant-water fleets fishing and/or landing catches elsewhere.Thus, our definition of artisanal fisheries relies also on adjacency: they are assumed to operate only in domestic waters (i.e., in their country’s EEZ).Within their EEZ, they are further limited to a coastal area to a maximum of 50 km from the coast or to 200 m depth, whichever comes first.

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