Archaeologists have also recorded how primitive forms of humans spread out of Africa into Asia about 1.8 million years ago, then into Europe about 900,000 years ago.The first physically modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens, appeared in tropical Africa between 200,000 and 150,000 years agodates determined by molecular biologists and archaeologists working together.The earliest subjects of archaeological study date from the origins of humanity.These include fossil remains believed to be of human ancestors who lived 3.5 million to 4.5 million years ago.Today, archaeologists study the great cultural diversity of humanity in every corner of the world.Archaeological study covers an extremely long span of time and a great variety of subjects.On rare occasions, however, delicate objects have been preserved.For example, fabrics and flowers were found in the celebrated tomb of Tutankhamun, an Egyptian pharaoh who was buried in 1323 BC.
Archaeological studies have also provided much information about the people who first arrived in the Americas over 12,000 years ago.
Sites containing signs of the first simple but purposeful burials in graves date to as early as 40,000 years ago in Europe and Southwest Asia.
By the time people lived in civilizations, burials and funeral ceremonies had become extremely important and elaborate rituals.
The earliest archaeological sites include those at Hadar, Ethiopia; Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli, Tanzania; East Turkana, Kenya; and elsewhere in East Africa.
These sites contain evidence of the first appearance of bipedal (upright walking), apelike early humans.